390 CLASSIFICATION OF CAE.NIVORA CHAR subdivisions. The caecum is never large, and may be, as in tlie Bear tribe, completely absent. The distribution of the Garni vora is world- wide, excluding only the Australian region, if, as seems probable, the Bingo of that region is an introduced species. The most striking features in their distribution are perhaps the following : There are no Bears in the Ethiopian region or in Madagascar, and but a single species in the Neotropical. The only Carnivora in Madagascar are the Yiverridae, and of the seven genera there found six are peculiar. The Procyonidae are nearly entirely New World in range ; out of sixteen genera of MusteMdae only five are New World, and only two of those are peculiar to the American continent. The Hyaenidae are limited to the Old World. The classification of the Carnivora is a matter which is difficult, and which has therefore been very variously effected. It is unfortunate that the classification of Flower (based upon the researches of H. N. Turner as well as his own, and accepted by Mivart) should fail when applied to fossil forms. For it separates with great clearness the existing genera into three great divisions, the Cynoidea, Aeluroidea, and Arctoidea, definable by visceral as well as by osteological characters. The apparent anomaly, too, of a single supposed "Viverrine genus, to wit JBassttriscus, existing in America, while all the rest of its kin are Old -World forms, was shown by Ms characters to be neither an anomaly nor a fact. It will be better, therefore, to divide the Carnivora into the families, Felidae, Machae- rodontidae, Viverridae^ Hyaenidae, Canidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae, and Mustelidae, indicating at the same time the reasons for and against retaining the three divisions of Sir W, Flower. Fam. 1. Felidae.1 This family includes only the Cats (i.e. Lions, Tigers, ** Cats," Hunting Leopard, etc.), and is to be distinguished by the following characters : In the skuH the auditory bulla is much inflated, and there is an internal septum ; the paroccipital processes are flattened against the bullae. There is no ali- sphenoidal canal. The dental formula is I 3, C 1, Pm 3 to 2, M \. The earnassial tooth of the upper jaw has three lobes to the Hade ; that of the lower jaw is without an inner cusp. 1 See St. G. IMrraTt "On the AeluroMea/' Free- Zool. Soc. 1882, p. 135 : awl * Ixxndon, ĞL Muiray, 1S8I.